Dr. Shapiro has a lengthy history of teaching, writing, and consulting in areas dealing with what is called legally the Standard of Care. This concept forms the basis of licensing board complaints, complaints to ethics committees, and malpractice litigation. While licensing complaints and ethics complaints deal with a deviation from an established standard of care, they do not require evidence of harm or a proximate cause relationship between that deviation and a plaintiff’s emotional injuries. Malpractice cases do require this additional element. Dr. Shapiro consults extensively on cases involving complaints to licensing boards and ethics committees as well as Malpractice litigation. Dr. Shapiro has been retained by attorneys who represent a plaintiff as well as by various boards and insurance companies who represent the defendant. In both settings, Dr. Shapiro brings his knowledge of psychological assessment and treatment procedures, and how they are in agreement with or deviate from established standards of care.